IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FISH AND USING ELECTROPHORESIS AS BIO-INDICATOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION OF ROSETTA BRANCH, RIVER NILE, EGYPT
In the present work, samples of water and fish were collected from the river Nile at El- Qanater El- Khyria as non-polluted site and from downstream of El-Rahawy drain (El-Qatta) as a polluted drain during different seasons of 2016. The concentration of metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Cd) in water and their accumulations in fish muscles were measured. Electrophoresis pattern of Oreochromis niloticus including protein pattern, calcium pattern and β-esterase have been determined. In the present study, results revealed increased concentrations of studied metals in water and fish samples mainly during the winter season. The values of Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn and Cd were higher than the permissible limits in water, while Fe, Pb and Zn exceeded the permissible limits in fish muscles, especially those of El-Qatta station. Results of electrophoretic protein pattern showed similarities in arrangement of the bands in liver and muscles tissues in fishes taken from both locations (A and B). The cumulative risk impacts have been discussed.