ADVANCED NANOCATALYSTS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
Global energy consumption is on the rise due to increasing industrial capacity of nations. This has made humans to be over reliant on fossil fuel for energy production. Diminishing fossil fuel reserve and long-term increase in average climate temperature has given rise to energy shortage and environmental degradation. Renewable energy is an alternative that will offer clean, sustainable and efficient energy. Solar, wind and hydro have all been explored in this regard. Biodiesel is another promising resource with great potential. It is diesel produced from organic sources containing free fatty acids through the transesterification reaction process that utilizes alcohols and catalysts. Research has been undertaken over the years to improve the efficiency of biodiesel production aimed at reducing complexities and cost. The type of catalysts used influences reaction conditions and biodiesel yield. Heterogeneous nanocatalyst has shown great potential in eradicating complexities and reducing cost. This review will focus on most recent research works that have used nanocatalyst to produce biodiesel. Possible areas of research can be explored for advancement in biodiesel production using nanotechnology.