PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FROM ROSETTA BRANCH OF THE RIVER NILE
The River Nile is the essence of life in Egypt, but during the last decades its water quality has been changed by several factors, as a result of anthropogenic activities. The western branch of the River Nile is Rosetta Branch receives different types of pollution. The main origins of most pollutants are El-Rahawy drain and industrial activities in Kafr El-Zayat city. Water samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters and blood samples for biochemical parameters of the Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, to investigate the responses of fish towards these different types of pollution. Samples were collected from three sites from Rosetta branch of the River Nile during summer 2014 and winter 2015. S2 and S3 recorded an increase in water electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), while dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH have been depleted. Nitrite, nitrates and ammonia levels also showed an elevation, especially in winter. Moreover, fundamental biochemical parameters such as; glucose, total protein, total lipid, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, kidney functions and liver functions in blood serum of O. niloticus recorded remarkable alterations, indicating stressful conditions, caused by the profound pollutants and poor water quality of water at these sites.